GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Sample pins – gold samples of various karatage used in the identification process of the karatage of a piece of jewelry.

Alloy – product obtained by melting certain metals together.

Sample water – solution used in the verification process of the karatage of metals.

Gold – yellow metal that is found in its native state in the mountains, in veins or alluvial sands.

White gold – alloy of gold and a white metal, palladium, chromium, zinc.

Gilding -the process by which silver or gold jewels are plated with gold. For example red gold jewelry can be yellow gold plated to provide a new look.

Goldsmith – archaic term used to denote the craft of jewelry.

Rod  – the shape of a stone given after cutting and processing it.

Slave bracelets  – term used for rigid bracelets.

Brilliant – the cut of a diamond in the form of a double pyramid with a number of 57 or 58 facets.

Carbine – type of fastening; closing system for chains.

Crown – is the top of a polished diamond, above the girdle.

Culet –  is the lower facet of the polished stone rising, from which the pavilion rises.

Carat – the unit of measure for the weight of diamonds. Diamonds are weighed with great precision, and the unit of measurement is metric, its abbreviated  form being  "cts" or "ct". A carat weighs 0,200 gr.

Hardness – used in jewelry, the term represents a resistance to scratches- how the stone’s surface reacts when touched with a hard object.

Ductile – about metals that can be processed into very thin stripes.

Butterfly – clamping system of the earrings. The butterfly is attached to the wire that goes into the ear.

Fire – sparks of colour that we see when we look at a polished diamond that comes into contact with light.

Facet  – the cut, polished surface of the stones. For example, the  brilliant cut has 57 facets.

Gemology – science which studies stones.

Synthetic gem (synthetic stone) – Stones created by human hand, in laboratory, with properties as faithful as possible to the natural ones.

Natural gem (natural stone) – stone created through natural processes without human intervention.

Jeweler – craftsman who manufactures jewelry.

Inclusion – feature determining the clarity of diamonds, an impurity which is practically closed inside the stone or it threads from its surface towards its inside.

Irregularity – determining characteristic in the clarity of a diamond which is found only on the outer surface of a polished stone.

Karat – index of gold content in its alloys, equal to 24th  part of the total mass.

Tear – a special cut of the stone, its shape resembles a tear.

Luster – the way a stone shines in contact with light.

Malleability – the bending and shaping properties of metal.

Marquise – oval – sharpened stone cut.

Monogrammed – a letter or another symbol applied on a flat surface.

Mounting  – fastening of a stone in a jewel.

Mark – symbol stamped on jewelry. It can be linked to karatage, the manufacturer or the country of origin.

Noble metals – generic name for gold, silver and platinum.

Organic – material that used to be a alive once or which has been produced by a living organism (plant or animal): pearls, coral, ivory, amber.

Opaque – Light does not penetrate it at all. A brick wall is opaque.

Pave – a certain style of mounting stones in a jewel.

Pavilion – the bottom of a faceted diamond, the part that can be found under girdle.

Precious stones – a well-defined class in  gemology, which includes diamonds, rubies, sapphires and emeralds.

Sample stone – stone also known as stone Lidia, of black colour, polished through the prismatic system, of a very increased hardness, known for its resistance to acids, used to perform verification of karatage of precious metals.

Platinum – precious metal with white colour – grey, tough, shiny, malleable and ductile, stainless, resisting heat and the action of acids.

Goblet – Bowl of different shapes and sizes, with a wide opening, used in various ceremonies.

Girdle (or waist)-is a narrow section around a polished diamond that makes the link between the crown and the pavilion of the diamond and is used as the fixing point of the gem in the jewelry.

Biza rail  – is the rail that continues and supports the head of the ring.

Glow – is created by the combination realized by white light reflected from the surface and from the inside of a polished diamond.

Peg – cylindrical or tapered metal rod, used for joining two pieces of metal.

Scintillation – sparks of light that we see when a diamond or the light source is in motion when it is observed.

Transparency – the degree of light intensity which passes through an object.

Translucent – light becomes diffused as it enters through a material. Frosted glass is translucent.

Link  –  a round fastening which may be attached or included in the clamp.